Approaching the question concerning digital being 2.
Both the ontology and manner of human existence are of concern to existentialism. Ontic structure of human existence The fundamental characteristic of existentialist ontology is the primacy that study of the nature of existence gives to the concept of possibility. That priority dominated the philosophy of Kierkegaard and also was amply utilized by Husserl, who had explicitly affirmed the ontological priority of possibility over reality.
Possibility, however, is not understood by the existentialists in the purely logical sense as absence of contradiction nor in the traditional metaphysical sense as potentiality destined to become actuality but, rather, in the sense of ontic or objective possibility, which is the very structure of human existence.
It is thus the specific modality of the being of humans. The future is its fundamental temporal dimension, to which the present and the past are subordinate and secondary; existence is always stretched out toward the future.
As possibility, existence is also transcendence, being beyond, because all of its constitutive possibilities organize it beyond itself toward the other beings of the world and toward the world in its totality.
To existence, Heidegger contrasted the presence of the things in the world—a presence that assumes, as the individual takes notice of such things for his needs, the aspect of utilizability. But utilizability is not a simple quality of things; it is their very being.
According to Jaspers, over against the existence of the possible humanity, Dasein stands the world as the infinite horizon that encompasses within itself each possible existence and, therefore, cannot itself be encompassed by any one of them. It is a world that is a reality of fact, at the origin of which there is a Being that is pure transcendence and that, therefore, never reveals itself.
Similarly, the religious forms of existentialism insist on transcendence, considering it to be the property of the Being that is beyond the existential possibilities and that can enter among them solely under the form of mystery Marcel and of the extratemporal revelation of faith Barth, Jaspers.
Marcel, in that regard, contrasted Being, which is a mystery, with having, which is the condition of humans in the world. That is to say, the individual has objects before him that are foreign to his subjectivity.
He tries to organize them and discover the bond that ties them together so as to control and use them. In all such doctrines, there is the dominating theme of the contrast between the modality proper to existence, which is possibility, and the modality proper to Being, which is reality or facticity.
As a result of that contrast, existence as possibility appears as the nothingness of Being, as the negation of every reality of fact. In a brief but famous work, Was ist Metaphysik? In truthNothingness is, for the existentialists, possible existence, as the negation of the reality of fact. The same is true of valuewhich is such insofar as it does not exist.
For even when value occurs or is perceived in certain acts, it lies beyond them and constitutes the limit or the goal toward which they aim.
Analogously, knowledgein which the object the in-itself presents itself to consciousness the for-itselfis a relationship of nullification, because the object cannot be offered to consciousness except as that which is not consciousness. Manner and style of human existence Existentialism is never a solipsism in the proper sense of the term, because every existential possibility relates the individual to things and to other humans.
Sometimes it is presented as humanism in the sense that it places human destiny in the hands of humans themselves. But that version is rejected by all of the currents of the movement that, starting with Heidegger, insist on the priority and the initiative of Being with regard to human existence.
The opposition between those two points of view depends on how the different existentialists solve the problem of freedom. The individual always finds himself in a situation in which his constitutive possibilities are rooted.
For Heidegger and Jaspers, that situation determines the choice that he makes among the possibilities; for Sartre, conversely, the situation is determined by the choice. From the first point of view, every project of life falls back on or is reduced to the situation from which it starts; thus, the possibility of being, of acting, of willing, of choosing is really, as Jaspers pointed out in his Philosophiethe impossibility of being, acting, willing, and choosing in a manner different from the way things are—i.
From the second point of view, the fundamental project, which is the primordial choice, has no conditions; as Sartre said: In the latter instance, freedom is a kind of damnation.
Jaspers affirms, in his turn, that the only choice offered is that between accepting or rejecting the situation with which one is identified.
The rejection of it, however, is a betrayal that plunges one back into the situation itself.
Existentialist ontology thus fluctuates between Being and Nothingness and concludes by regarding Nothingness as the only possible revelation of Being.
In the cosmological or theological version, it is Being that intervenes, in a way that is more or less mysterious or hidden, to redeem one from Nothingness. Problems of existentialist philosophy The key problems for existentialism are those of the individual himself, of his situation in the world, and of his more ultimate significance.
Humanity and human relationships Existentialist anthropology is strictly connected with its ontology. The traditional distinction between mind and body or soul and body is completely eliminated; thus, the body is a lived-through experience that is an integral part of human existence in its relationship with the world.
Consciousness, according to Sartre, is constant openness toward the world, a transcendent relationship with other beings and thereby with the in-itself. For the same reasons, the traditional opposition between subject and object, or between the self and the nonself, loses all sense.Friedrich Nietzsche (—) Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic.
His writings on truth, morality, language, aesthetics, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, consciousness, and the meaning of existence have exerted an enormous influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history.
Nietzsche spoke of "the death of God," and foresaw the dissolution of. 60 61 Beyond suBJectivity: KIerKegAArd’s self And HeIdegger’s dAseIn analysis is to demonstrate that Heidegger radicalises beyond Kierkegaard’s. Heidegger's Reading of Descartes' Dualism: The Relation of Subject and Object.
A. Kadir Çüçen Uludag University [email protected] ABSTRACT: The problem of traditional epistemology is the relation of subject to external world.
The distinction between subject and object makes possible the distinction between the knower and what is known. Books with essays on Martin Heidegger in English. Books of essays on Heidegger.
After grupobittia.com by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt, London, Rowman & Littlefield, (last updated March ) Glossary of Terms in Being and Time. By Roderick Munday. Introductory notes. This glossary is taken from my 'explication and commentary' of Heidegger's Being and grupobittia.com was first published online in February and substantially updated in September This study originally arose out of an e-mail discussion with Rafael Capurro at the artefactphil discussion group in I am therefore indebted to him for important impulses.
Cf. Rafael Capurro's analogous article Beiträge zu einer digitalen Ontologie (Contribution to a Digital Ontology), from which the present study deviates considerably in both content and scope of presentation.