Dry cupping[ edit ] The cupping procedure commonly involves creating a small area of low air pressure next to the skin. However, there are varieties in the tools used, the methods of creating the low pressure, and the procedures followed during the treatment. Plastic and glass are the most common materials used today, replacing the horn, pottery, bronze and bamboo cups used in earlier times.
The Malay Maritime Code, first drawn up in the late 15th century, uses junk frequently as the word for freight ships.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The historian Herbert Warington Smyth considered the junk as one of the most efficient ship designs, stating that "As an engine for carrying man and his commerce upon the high and stormy seas as well as on the vast inland waterways, it is doubtful if any class of vessel… is more suited or better adapted to its purpose than the Chinese or Indian junk, and it is certain that for flatness of sail and handiness, the Chinese rig is unsurpassed.
The sails of a junk can be moved inward toward the long axis of the ship. In theory this closeness of what is called sheeting allowed the junk to sail into the wind. In practice, evidenced both by traditional sailing routes and seasons and textual evidence  junks could not sail well into the wind.
The Kangxi Emperor r. Traditionally, the hull has a horseshoe-shaped stern supporting a high poop deck. The bottom is flat in Ap lit junk river junk with no keel similar to a sampanso that the boat relies on a daggerboard leeboard or very large rudder to prevent the boat from slipping sideways Ap lit junk the water.
The planking is edge nailed on a diagonal. Iron nails or spikes have been recovered from a Canton dig dated to circa BC. For caulking the Chinese used a mix of ground lime with Tung oil together with chopped hemp from old fishing nets which set hard in 18 hours, but usefully remained flexible.
Junks have narrow waterlines which accounts for their potential speed in moderate conditions, although such voyage data as we have indicates that average speeds on voyage for junks were little different from average voyage speeds of almost all traditional sail, i.
This conjecture was based on the size of a rudder post that was found and misinterpreted, using formulae applicable to modern engine powered ships.
Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments or bulkheadsstrengthened the ship and slowed flooding in case of holing.
All wrecks discovered so far have limber holes ; these are different from the free flooding holes that are located only in the foremost and aftermost compartments, but are at the base of the transverse bulkheads allowing water in each compartment to drain to the lowest compartment, thus facilitating pumping.
It is believed from evidence in wrecks that the limber holes could be stopped either to allow the carriage of liquid cargoes or to isolate a compartment that had sprung a leak.
Junk near Hong Kong, circa Benjamin Franklin wrote in a letter on the project of mail packets between the United States and France: As these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, and each of these apartments caulked tight so as to keep out water.
His idea was not adopted. Bentham had been in China inand he acknowledged that he had got the idea of watertight compartments by looking at Chinese junks there. Bentham had already by this time designed and had built a segmented barge for use on the Volga River, so the idea of transverse hull separation was evidently in his mind.
Perhaps more to the point, there is a very large difference between the transverse bulkheads in Chinese construction, which offer no longitudinal strengthening, and the longitudinal members which Brunel adopted, almost certainly inspired by the iron bridge and boiler engineering in which he and his contemporaries in iron shipbuilding innovation were most versed.
Due to the numerous foreign primary sources that hint to the existence of true watertight compartments in junks, historians such as Joseph Needham proposed that the limber holes were stopped up as noted above in case of leakage. He addresses the quite separate issue of free-flooding compartments on pg of Science and Civilisation in Ancient China: Less well known is the interesting fact that in some types of Chinese craft the foremost and less frequently also the aftermost compartment is made free-flooding.
Holes are purposely contrived in the planking. This is the case with the salt-boats which shoot the rapids down from Tzuliuching in Szechuan, the gondola-shaped boats of the Poyang Lake, and many sea going junks.
The Szechuanese boatmen say that this reduces resistance to the water to a minimum, though such a claim makes absolutely no hydrodynamic sense, and the device is thought to cushion the shocks of pounding when the boat pitches heavily in the rapids, as it acquires and discharges water ballast rapidly supposedly just at the time when it is most desirable to counteract buffeting at stem and stern.
As with too many such claims, there has been no empirical testing of them and it seems unlikely that the claims would stand up to such testing since the diameter or number of holes needed for such rapid flooding and discharging would be so great as to significantly weaken the vulnerable fore and aft parts of the vessel.Get the latest health news, diet & fitness information, medical research, health care trends and health issues that affect you and your family on grupobittia.com In AP English, more time is spent on poems and timed writes and less on symbolism "junk" that you find in all of the other English classes.
A lot more character analysis and discussing the books. I love how in AP Lit we aren't assigned any long term lengthy essays at all on the most random topics in Honors English that the author probably didn. In AP English, more time is spent on poems and timed writes and less on symbolism "junk" that you find in all of the other English classes.
A lot more character analysis and discussing the books. I love how in AP Lit we aren't assigned any long term lengthy essays at all on the most random topics in Honors English that the author probably didn.
The AP English Literature and Composition course aligns to an introductory college-level literary analysis course. The course engages students in the close reading and critical analysis of imaginative literature to deepen their understanding of the ways writers use .
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century AD and developed rapidly during the Song dynasty (–).
CONTEXT: Parent-child book reading (PCBR) is effective at improving young children’s language, literacy, brain, and cognitive development. The psychosocial effects of PCBR interventions are unclear.