Textual criticism Textual criticism is concerned with the basic task of establishing, as far as possible, the original text of the documents on the basis of the available materials. For the Old Testamentuntilthese materials consisted principally of:
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation.
The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p. Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential.
Semiology Semiotics, simply put, is the science of signs. Semiology proposes that a great diversity of our human action and productions--our bodily postures and gestures, the the social rituals we perform, the clothes we wear, the meals we serve, the buildings we inhabit--all convey "shared" meanings to members of a particular culture, and so can be analyzed as signs which function in diverse kinds of signifying systems.
Linguistics the study of verbal signs and structures is only one branch of semiotics but supplies the basic methods and terms which are used in the study of all other social sign systems Abrams, p.
Binary Opposition - "pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse relevant ontological domaine.
In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term" Daniel Chandler. The distinction is important because Saussure contended that the relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary; the only way we can distinguish meaning is by difference one sign or word differs from another.
Instead, meaning--the interpretation of a sign--can exist only in relationship with other signs. Selden and Widdowson use the sign system of traffic lights as an example. The color red, in that system, signifies "stop," even though "there is no natural bond between red and stop" Meaning is derived entirely through difference, "a system of opposites and contrasts," e.
Northwestern UP, Hill and Wang, The Pleasure of the Text. Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature. U of California P, Jefferson, Anne and David Robey. Revolution in Poetic Language and Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art.
After the New Criticism. The Raw and the Cooked. John and Doreen Weighman. Semiotics of Poetry Peirce, Charles. Values in a Universe of Chance: Selected Writings of Charles S.
The Morphology of the Folktale. U of Texas P, Course in General Linguistics. The Subject of Semiotics.The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women.
The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on gender differences in background characteristics of substance A Review of Gender Differences Among Substance Abusers.
There is a growing body of evidence that Gender Identity Disorder (GID) as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV) () is at least in part, the result of insufficient or inappropriate androgenization of the brain at a critical stage of embryonic development.
Soft skills v7 © Kaipa Group Page 1 Soft Skills are Smart Skills Prasad Kaipa & Thomas Milus, SelfCorp, Inc. Subhash Chowdary, Ankhen, Inc.
Alexander Samely, with Philip Alexander, Rocco Bernasconi, and Robert Hayward, Profiling Jewish Literature in Antiquity: An Inventory, from Second Temple . Instant Cheminformatics Solutions. Chemicalize is a powerful online platform for chemical calculations, search, and text processing.
New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.