A soil is both an ecosystem in itself, and a critical part of the larger terrestrial ecosystem.
Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC Preface The results presented here represent a synthesis of the more than fifteen years of fieldwork that I have had the pleasure of carrying out in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Germany and Poland. At this point I would like to express my sincerest thanks to those who made my involvement in the above programmes a possibility, and most especially: Rauni Ohtonen University of HelsinkiProf.
David Reed and Prof.
I am also Hydrological classification of soils along toposequences to the authorities at the Universities in Helsinki, Turku and Oulu, as well as the heads of field stations of the Finnish Forest Research Institute METLAfor making chemical laboratories available to me as I was engaging in fieldwork.
The research described here is being continued with on Russian territory, within the framework of the European Commission's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development - project e-LUP Simulating land-use processes - an interactive e-toolfor SIAas well as through a project funded by the Polish Ministry of Education and Science - "Geographically conditioned trends and discontinuation of podzolic soil development - its genetic and ecological aspects".
The preliminary synthesis of the results described here was published in Polish Degorski I hope that characteristic of podzolic soils presented in English will be very helpful for all, who are interested in this type of soil and its properties, as well as in soil geography.
The original data are available at http: Introduction Podzolic soils were first distinguished as "podzols" in the second half of the 19th century by Russian soil scientists after Glinka and Karpaczewskisuch that Sibirtsev introduced the type into the official classification of soils Yaalon However, descriptions of podzolic soils may also in fact be found at the same time in the work of Scandinavian soil scientists Earth ; Forchhammer ; Miiller Subsequently, the term gained acceptance among - and was used by - soil scientists in many countries, irrespective of the classification actually in force Muir ; Ponomariewa ; Petersen ; Mokma, Buurman ; Boul et al,or else served in the devising of new regional names, such as popidoziem in Poland Chodzicki To afford misunderstandings, the present study uses the diagnostic spodic horizon to be the criterion considered to distinguish podzolic soils.
Podzolic soils are among the zonal soils in the boreal and sub-boreal climatic and vegetational belt.
However, within the European regions of their zonal occurrence, their share in the overall soil cover is very variable. They represent about Irrespective of geographical location, they are developed from sandy formations Petaja-Ronkainen et al.
They are also associated with ecosystems of acidophilous plant communities, most often coniferous forests1 Crocker ; Matuszkiewicz W. World pedological literature, and especially that of Europe, devotes much space to podzolic soils, in relation to the understanding of mechanisms through which they arise Lundblada, b; Rode ; Ponomariewa; McKeague etal.
The results of the research have been published, inter alia: Notwithstanding this extensive bibliography, the literature lacks work describing the spatial differentiation of the properties of podzolic soils on the supra-regional scale, and relating this to geographical variability of the factors conditioning the process of pedogenesis.
This paper is an in-depth conceptualisation of these issues through an analysis of many soil 1 in the zonal range of occurrence of podzolic properties defined in material collected by a single author employing the same laboratory methods.
The absence of such a study was one motivation behind the work presented here. The research carried out hitherto had mostly concentrated on a single geographical region, while studies of large spatial extent mostly confined themselves to narrowly-selected soil properties Sklodowski Other types of soil have been subject to much fuller characterisations of the dependent relationships between selected pedogenic factors and the variability of geographical zones, or altitudinal zones in the mountains and their influence on the development of the properties of the given soil cover Skiba ; Melke This is the first such study for podzols for the region described above.
In approaching the studies described here, I assumed that, if a defined soil type arises across a quite broad spatial spectrum - i.
The hypothesis advanced thus relates to interdependence between basic pedogenic D factors and the development of soil cover and its properties Dokuczajew Geographical influences include the type of weathering process, and in particular the breakdown of silicates and aluminosilicates Duchaufour ; Catt ; Bednarek, Prusinkiewiczthe quantity and quality of organic matter Jenny ; Crocker ; Prusinkiewicz a; Sapek ; Liski ; Lisk et al.
Relationship between geographical variability of pedogenic factors and soil properties.along two toposequences, one under forest (F) and the other under pasture (P), and to verify how the change in land use influences soil attributes, evaluating their inclusion in .
The soils are heavier in lower toposequences, due to washing and deposition of finer material transported from soils along the seasonal natural drains that have light texture Hydrological and groundwater mapping for the area and research soil. A large proportion of rainfed lowland rice in Southeast Asia is grown in gently sloping areas along toposequences with differences in elevation of a few meters.
These small differences in elevation can lead to differentiation in soil properties and hydrological conditions, which in turn may affect crop performance and yield. Nutrient Changes in Soils of Successional Forests of Northern Lower Michigan USA, Post-fire forest floor development along toposequences of white spruce - Trembling aspen mixedwood communities in west-central Alberta, ASPCLS--Aspen Classification System, Wayne D.
Shepperd. Dercon et al. (, ) described the more common toposequences in the southern Ecuadorian Andes according to the WRB classification (FAO, ISRIC and ISSS, ). Cumbe has a toposequence of soils from Vertic Cambisols, located in the alluvial area, surrounded by Dystric Cambisols at the hillslopes in the lower and middle part of the catchment.
Paper presented at the IAAE [International Association of Agricultural Economists] Inter-Conference Symposium on Agricultural Transitions along the Silk Road Restructuring, Resources and Trade in the Central Asia Region, Almaty, Kazakhstan, April