Activities of daily living.
Etiology of autism spectrum disorders: Genes, environment, or both? Abstract Introduction Thus far, most of the research on both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders has been focused on finding the presumed underlying genetic causes, while much less emphasis has been put on potential environmental factors.
While some forms of autism are clearly genetic, the fact remains that heritability factors cannot adequately explain all reported cases nor their drastic increase over the last few decades. Because the prenatal environment and early postnatal environment are shared between twins and because overt symptoms of autism emerge around the end of the first year of life, it is likely that at least some of the environmental factors contributing to the risk of autism exert their deleterious neurodevelopmental effect during this early period of life.
Indeed, evidence has now emerged showing that autism may in Neurological process paper result from early-life immune insults induced by environmental xenobiotics.
One of the most common xenobiotic with immuno-stimulating as well as neurotoxic properties to which infants under two years of age are routinely exposed worldwide is the aluminum Al vaccine adjuvant.
Because of the tight connection between the development of the immune and the central nervous system, the possibility that immune-overstimulation in early infancy via vaccinations may play a role in neurobehavioural disorders needs to be carefully considered.
Pica is seen more in young children than adults. Up to one third of children ages 1 to 6 have these eating behaviors. It is unclear how many children with pica intentionally consume dirt (geophagy). Contribution of neurological assessment towards the overall holistic health assessment of the client. Neurological assessments entail various tests, procedures and exams undertaken to make a diagnosis on diseases affecting the nervous system. Functional neurological symptom disorder, also called conversion disorder, is a complex condition where patients experience physical neurological symptoms, but without a clear structural problem.
Conclusion There is now sufficient evidence from both human and animal studies showing that cumulative exposure to aluminium adjuvants is not as benign as previously assumed.
Given that vaccines are the only medical intervention that we attempt to deliver to every living human on earth and that by far the largest target population for vaccination are Neurological process paper children, a better appreciation and understanding of vaccine adjuvant risks appears warranted.
Introduction The etiologies proposed for the spectrum of neurological disorders falling under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders ASD shows the same range as those proposed for the well-known neurological disorders associated with aging. The widespread, but incorrect, view regarding all of these diseases is that most cases arise from genetic mutations or polymorphisms.
Moreover, an apparent increase in both prevalence and incidence of these disorders over a relatively short time span i. In ALS, for example, much of the literature of the last 20 years has focused sequentially on the search for genetic etiologies leading to motor neuron loss and the list of defective genes has grown larger over this time period.
Thus the literature seems clear that the bulk of neurological disorders arise due to environmental factors, most still not identified reviewed in[ 1 ]. None of this diminishes the putative role of susceptibility genes, also mostly unknown, whose interactions with the various environmental toxicants are highly likely to be crucially involved.
Keeping with this, experimentally it has proven possible to develop toxin-based animal models of ALS in outbred mice with no gene mutations and thus model the much higher fraction of ALS which is sporadic[ 1 ]. In spite of these observations, the dominance of a genetic causality perspective for the above disorders remains relative firmly in place.
There is insufficient space in the present review to go into the various scientific and sociological reasons why this may be so see[ 1 ]but it is important to recognize that much the same perspective dominates the ASD field, a perspective that is likely to be as fundamentally incorrect as it is for ALS and the other age-related neurological disorders.
The increase in ASD began after the early s. Prior to this, the prevalence of autism was relatively low and relatively stable [ 1213 ].
In to the U. Department of Health and Human Services and the U. In the United Kingdom, current reported autism prevalence is 1 in 64 children per 10, [ 16 ]. Consistent with this, in a recent analysis comparing the prevalence of autism with that of other disabilities among successive birth cohorts of U.
With the above as a general introduction, the present article will attempt to address the issue of ASD etiology, putting into perspective the likely roles of genes versus environment in the disorder and the interactions between the two. Discussion The authors have referenced some of their own studies in this review.
These referenced studies have been conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the protocols of these studies have been approved by the relevant ethics committees related to the institution in which they were performed. All human subjects, in these referenced studies, gave informed consent to participate in these studies.
Animal care was also in accordance with the institution guidelines. Autism features and central nervous system CNS abnormalities Autism and related disorders of the autism spectrum i. Co-morbid behavioural and psychiatric conditions associated with the core symptoms include aggression, disruption, hyperactivity, self-injury, sensory abnormalities, anxiety, depression and sleeping disturbances.
The most frequent non-neurological co-morbidities associated with ASD are gastrointestinal abnormalities and underlying inflammation[ 22232425262728 ], feeding difficulties and food sensitivities[ 29 ]. Abnormal neural connectivity is one of the key pathological features of the autistic brain.
The term connectivity encompasses local connectivity within neural assemblies and long-range connectivity between brain regions. There is now also abundant evidence supporting the notion that abnormal activity of immune signalling in the brain interferes with the establishment of appropriate neuronal circuitry during development, thus contributing to the emergence of autistic phenotypes [ 333435 ].
For example, mice deficient in MHC class I signalling and the classical complement cascade C1q and C3 exhibit defects in synaptic pruning in specific areas of the brain as well as enhanced epileptic activity[ 3637 ].
Cerebellar Purkinje cells, which are significantly reduced in autism, are a site of prominent MHC class I expression and one hypothesis currently under investigation is that specifically timed changes in neuronal MHC class I expression could contribute to autism[ 31 ]. Notably, neuropathological examinations on autistic brains by Vargas et al.
In the middle frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate gyrus, astroglial reactions were prominent in the subcortical white matter, and in some cases panlaminar astrogliosis was observed.
The cerebrospinal fluid derived from autistic patients likewise showed a unique proinflammatory profile of cytokines, including a marked increase in MCP-1[ 38 ]. Altogether these observations suggest that autistic brain is a result of a disease process that arises from altered activity of immune-related pathways in the brain.
Other evidence in support of this notion is the frequent finding of autoimmune manifestations, particularly those affecting the CNS, in autistic individuals which do not appear to be limited to only a few nervous system antigens.Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Educational Resources > Glossary of Brain Injury Terms.
Browse our extensive glossary of brain injury terms, or search for a specific term. Sep 16, · Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. There's good news for printers and paper companies.
Despite the enormous migration to electronic media, neuroscience research shows that. Welcome to the new Bomar Aromatherapy website. Bomar Aromatherapy is your source for essential oils, carrier oils, packaging, beauty textbooks, soap making supplies and a whole lot more.
Neurological Visual Impairment. Also known as: Cortical Visual Impairment, Delayed Visual Maturation, Cortical Blindness. Neurological Visual Impairment (NVI) is now the preferred name for a type of vision impairment that has been and is still referred to .
A new study shows a significant portion of the US population not only reacts to gluten and dairy but also that this reaction causes the immune system to destroy brain and nervous tissue in a scenario called neurological autoimmunity (as evidenced by positive tissue antibodies).
E pidural anesthesia has become increasingly popular for childbirth. The popular book, What to Expect when You’re Expecting, for example, portrays epidurals as perfectly safe.
The risks, however, may be greatly underplayed.
Note: This is a site in progress. We are interested in detailing all the risks of epidural anesthesia for childbirth.