CIS provides a number of risk mitigation solutions for organizations at risk of terrorist attack.
Knowledgeable individuals from academia, government, human rights groups and other fields were asked to submit reports and information.
Their reports were supplemented with information gathered from Constitutions, laws, international and national government documents, news reports, human rights reports and other sources.
A list of contributors is located at Appendix D. Privacy underpins human dignity and other key values such as freedom of association and freedom of speech. It has become one of the most important human rights issues of the modern age. The publication of this report reflects the growing importance, diversity and complexity of this fundamental right.
This report provides details of the state of privacy in fifty countries from around the world. It outlines the constitutional and legal conditions of privacy protection, and summarizes important issues and events relating to privacy and surveillance.
Nearly every country in the world recognizes a right of privacy explicitly in their Constitution. At a minimum, these provisions include rights of inviolability of the home and secrecy of communications.
Most recently-written Constitutions such as South Africa's and Hungary's include specific rights to access and control one's personal information.
In many of the countries where privacy is not explicitly recognized in the Constitution, such as the United States, Ireland and India, the courts have found that right in other provisions. In many countries, international agreements that recognize privacy rights such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the European Convention on Human Rights have been adopted into law.
In the early s, countries began adopting broad laws intended to protect individual privacy.
Throughout the world, there is a general movement towards the adoption of comprehensive privacy laws that set a framework for protection. Most of these laws are based on the models introduced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Council of Europe.
Inconscious both of the shortcomings of law, and the many differences in the level of protection in each of its States, the European Union passed a Europe-wide directive which will provide citizens with a wider range of protections over abuses of their data.
Each EU State must pass complementary legislation by October The Directive also imposes an obligation on member States to ensure that the personal information relating to European citizens is covered by law when it is exported to, and processed in, countries outside Europe.
This requirement has resulted in growing pressure outside Europe for the passage of privacy laws. More than forty countries now have data protection or information privacy laws. More are in the process of being enacted.
Reasons for Adopting Comprehensive Laws There are three major reasons for the movement towards comprehensive privacy and data protection laws.In this paper, I review three major purposes for arms control negotiations — disarmament, stability, and advantage.
In the first part of the paper, I compare the three purposes against the causes of war literature to show that each provides a defensible. Dec 14, · Americans now name terrorism, more than any other issue, as the most important problem facing the country in the wake of the recent attacks in Paris and San Bernardino, according to a new poll.
75 Terrorism and Civil Aviation Security: Problems and Trends Jangir Arasly ∗ General Trends in Present-Day Terrorism The terrorist attacks of 11 September marked the start of a new period in modern.
Terrorism is a significant issue in security issue, but there are more issues that serious than Terrorism. Terrorists are active, but they are not more dangerous as states.
States have WMDs, but terrorists often don’t. In the past, national security has centered on the strategies that political and military leaders pursue in their respective countries to defend their national interests, with a focus on military, diplomatic, economic, and informational instruments of power.
To address this vital issue, CIS has selected and trained a number of experienced Special Services Group (SSG) officers in anti-terrorism tactics and security procedures. These officers, referred to as Anti-Terrorism Officers (ATOs), provide an effective solution for armed security services at high risk installations, such as chemical.