History of technology Productivity improving technologies date back to antiquity, with rather slow progress until the late Middle Ages. Important examples of early to medieval European technology include the water wheelthe horse collarthe spinning wheel, the three-field system after the four-field system—see Crop rotation and the blast furnace. The spinning wheel increased the supply of rags used for pulp in paper making, whose technology reached Sicily sometime in the 12th century. Cheap paper was a factor in the development of the movable type printing presswhich led to a large increase in the number of books and titles published.
The economic impact of e-commerce By Chris G. From the Quarter 2 issue Comment E-commerce has altered the practice, timing, and technology of B2B and B2C markets, affecting everything from transportation patterns to consumer behavior.
Thanks to the development of electronic commerce, the most basic of economic transactions— the buying and selling of goods—continues to undergo changes that will have a profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business B2B and business-to-consumer B2C commerce.
It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and consumer behavior in developed economies worldwide. B2B e-commerce leads the way Business-to-business electronic commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in global supply chain networks see Figure 1.
Inapproximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and One reason why B2B e-commerce is more sophisticated and larger in size than directto- consumer e-commerce is that B2B transactions developed out of the electronic data interchange EDI networks of the s and s.
Article Figures [Figure 2] E-commerce retail sales Enlarge this image The steady growth in business-to-business e-commerce has changed the cost and profit picture for companies worldwide. At the microeconomic level, growth of B2B e-commerce results in a substantial reduction in transaction costs, improved supply chain management, and reduced costs for domestic and global sourcing.
At the macroeconomic level, strong growth of B2B e-commerce places downward pressure on inflation and increases productivity, profit margins, and competitiveness.
Double-digit growth for B2C E-commerce retail has become the fastest growing trade sector and has outpaced every other trade and manufacturing sector sincewhen the U. Census Bureau started collecting and publishing data on e-commerce.
That year, e-commerce retail sales represented less than 1 percent of total U. In that number climbed to a little less than 2 percent; by it had grown to 3.
During the "Great Recession," which lasted from December through Junemanufacturing, wholesale, and bricks-and-mortar retail sales took a heavy beating.
By the fourth quarter of they still had not fully recovered, even though U. Retail e-commerce, by contrast, weathered the recession relatively well, albeit with considerably slower growth than had been seen prior to the financial crisis.
In the first quarter ofretail ecommerce experienced quarterly, year-over-year growth of about 42 percent.
On the eve of the recession, that rate dropped to a still-respectable 18 percent. Quarterly sales continued to grow until the latter part ofand in the fourth quarter of sales surpassed the previous peak see Figure 2. Contrary to popular opinion, mail-order houses still have a very strong online presence, and until just recently their sales outperformed online-only retailers.
In the past, when consumers wanted to make purchases they had to set aside time to shop during certain hours of the day, or they had to read through catalogs sent to them by mail-order houses.
Today, many consumers can simply use their computers— and now smart phones or other portable electronic devices—to shop online. Buyers and sellers that engage in e-commerce retail trade are no longer restricted by store hours, geographic marketing areas, or catalog mailing lists.
With a few simple clicks they can gain access to a variety of goods 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
The characteristics of retail e-commerce merchandise also have changed significantly over the past decade. Back incomputer hardware was the most common type of merchandise sold over the Internet.
Today, the variety of merchandise is extremely diverse, and shoppers can buy almost anything online. Online shoppers have benefited in other ways. But this has led to a substantial decrease in the number of small companies operating in certain industries, as they tend to be less involved with e-commerce.
Larger businesses, most notably retail book outlets, new automobile dealerships, and travel agents, are better able to compete in this new market environment.The Digital Divide, ICT, and Broadband Internet ICT - Information Communications Technologies.
The Digital Divide, or the digital split, is a social issue referring to the differing amount of information between those who have access to the Internet (specially broadband access) and those who do not have access.
Introduction. As per the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), India’s banking sector is sufficiently capitalised and well-regulated.
The financial and economic conditions in . Growth of Mobile E-Commerce We’ve already begun to see the seeds of mobile e-commerce being sown by giants like Amazon, but we can predict a big bang in the growth of mobile commerce structures. With apps becoming friendlier to use, and smartphones becoming a norm, this segment is set to grow by leaps and bounds.
It includes e-commerce and e-business. eMarketer projects an increase in the share of B2B e-commerce in total global e-commerce from % in to 87% in and a consequent decrease in the share of B2C e-commerce from . June - Sebastiaan Scholte, outgoing Chairman of the Cool Chain Association, speaks to TIACA Times about the organization’s plans for the grupobittia.comiaan, you recently announced your retirement from chairmanship of CCA.
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