One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I d. It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period. The Gaza Thesis theory popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islambut it is now highly criticised and no longer generally accepted by historians, and no consensus on the nature of the early Ottoman state's expansion has replaced it. In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate— While the Byzantine Roman and Sassanid Persian empires were both weakened by warfare —a new power in the form of Islam grew in the Middle East.
In a series of rapid Muslim conquestsArab armiesled by the Caliphs and skilled military commanders such as Khalid ibn al-Walidswept through most of the Middle East, taking more than half of Byzantine territory and completely engulfing the Persian lands.
In Anatoliathey were stopped in the Siege of Constantinople —18 by the Byzantines, who were helped by the Bulgarians.
The Byzantine provinces of Roman SyriaNorth Africaand Sicily, however, could not mount such a resistance, and the Muslim conquerors swept through those regions. At the far west, they crossed the sea taking Visigothic Hispania before being halted in southern France in the Battle of Tours by the Franks.
At its greatest extent, the Arab Empire was the first empire to control the entire Middle East, as well three-quarters of the Mediterranean regionthe only other empire besides the Roman Empire to control most of the Mediterranean Sea. The Seljuq Empire would also later dominate the region.
Between andthe Emirate of Sicily was one of the major centres of Islamic culture in the Mediterranean. After its conquest by the Normans the island developed its own distinct culture with the fusion of Arab, Western, and Byzantine influences.
Palermo remained a leading artistic and commercial centre of the Mediterranean well into the Middle Ages. Motivated by religion and conquest, the kings of Europe launched a number of Crusades to try to roll back Muslim power and retake the Holy Land.
The Crusades were unsuccessful but were far more effective in weakening the already tottering Byzantine Empire. They also rearranged the balance of power in the Muslim world as Egypt once again emerged as a major power.
Islamic culture and science[ edit ] Main articles: Religion always played a prevalent role in Middle Eastern culture, affecting learning, architecture, and the ebb and flow of cultures. When Muhammad introduced Islam, it jump-started Middle Eastern culture, inspiring achievements in architecturethe revival of old advances in science and technology, and the formation of a distinct way of life.
Islam also created the need for spectacularly built mosques which created a distinct form of architecture. Islam unified the Middle East and helped the empires there to remain stable. This created a mix of cultures, especially in Africa, and the mawali demographic. Although the mawali would experience discrimination from the Umayyad, they would gain widespread acceptance from the Abbasids and it was because of this that allowed for mass conversions in foreign areas.
Muslims saved and spread Greek advances in medicinealgebrageometryastronomyanatomyand ethics that would later finds it way back to Western Europe. The works of AristotleGalenHippocratesPtolemyand Euclid were saved and distributed throughout the empire and eventually into Europe in this manner.Ottoman Empire- The Ottoman Empire was the last of a series of Turkish Muslim empires.
It spread from Asia minor beginning about , eventually encompassing most of the Middle East, most of North Africa, and parts of Europe, including modern Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia.
The decline of the Ottoman Empire, – Internal problems. The reign of Süleyman I the Magnificent marked the peak of Ottoman grandeur, but signs of weakness signaled the beginning of a slow but steady decline.
An important factor in the decline was the increasing lack of ability and power of the sultans themselves. Baghdad becomes capital of Arab-Islamic empire; Middle East sees a period of success Mongols invade the Middle East ending the Arab-Islamic empire Ottoman Empire extends through most of the Arab world.
The Köprülü Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania, the Middle East and North Africa. These reforms included An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, . Guns for the Sultan is a very important book that deserves a wide success amongst historians specialized in military affairs.
The research performed in Turkish archives is probably the first of this type in quality and quantity and the information given to the reader is absolutely priceless. America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History - Kindle edition by Andrew J. Bacevich. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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